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Outdoor Air


Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Health (UBC Bridge Program)

The period between conception and early childhood when vital organs are forming and rapidly developing is the most vulnerable of life stages to the effects of toxic environment exposures, including traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). Epidemiologic studies on preterm birth have consistently shown elevated risks with a number of measures of TRAP, including distance of residence from traffic...

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Reducing cardiovascular health impacts from traffic-related noise and air pollution: intervention strategies

Recent studies suggest that exposure to both traffic-related air pollution (TrAP) and to road traffic noise (RTN) are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the exact pathophysiologic mechanisms are not known, plausible biological models exist for both associations. This paper describes interventions and mitigating measures aimed at reducing both air and noise pollution...

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Residential Use of Wood-Burning Appliances in Canada

This report summarizes information on woodsmoke emissions and health effects associated with woodsmoke exposures from residential wood-burning (RWB) in Canada and provides a qualitative indication of the potential effectiveness of different intervention strategies based on a review of the available literature and interviews with Canadian health authorities. The purpose of this report is to...

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Introduction to air quality advisories

Air quality advisories are a mechanism by which provincial and regional governments actively provide the public with information on hourly or daily periods of poor outdoor air quality. Advisories are issued for specific geographical locations when one or more pollutants approach or exceed (or are forecasted to approach/exceed) a relevant air quality trigger. Advisories inform the public about...

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Case Study of a Persistent Landfill Fire and Community Health Impacts

This case study explores the issue of health impacts in the community from persistent landfill fires and covers a number of topics including: outdoor air pollution; waste management; health equity; health surveillance; environmental surveillance; and occupational health. Although written from a broad public health and medical health officers’ point of view, this case study may be helpful to...

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Cardiovascular Health, Traffic-related Air Pollution and Noise: Are associations mutually confounded? A systematic review

This review assessed the confounding effect of one traffic-related exposure (noise or air pollutants) on the association between the other exposure and cardiovascular outcomes. A systematic review was conducted with the databases Medline and Embase. The confounding effects in studies were assessed by using change in the estimate with a 10 % cutoff point. The influence on the change in the...

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Forest Residues to Energy: Is this a pathway towards healthier communities? (UBC Bridge Program)

Forest residues are non-merchantable woody biomass found in forests and wood waste from logging practices and industrial operations, such as sawmills. Forest residues are a convenient fuel for open-burning and conventional biomass burning systems (e.g., fireplaces and wood stoves), but more recently have been considered as a fuel for advanced wood combustion (AWC) integrated energy systems, used...

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Air Quality Assessment Tools: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners

Several tools exist to assess local air quality, including the impact of specific sources, emissions, and meteorological conditions. Information generated from the use of air quality assessment tools can inform decisions on permitting of emissions, industrial siting, and land use; all can impact local air quality, which in turn can influence air pollution related health effects of a population....

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Air Quality and Community Health Impact of Animal Manure Management (UBC Bridge Program)

Nearly 200 million tonnes of livestock manure are generated in Canada each year.1 Manure storage and land application tends to produce odour, greenhouse gases, microbes, and particulate matter, which can negatively impact the environment and human health. Occupational exposures of manure management have been linked to psychological stress and adverse effects on the respiratory system and heart...

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Nanotechnology: A Review of Exposure, Health Risks and Recent Regulatory Developments

Nanotechnology is the creation of materials, devices, and systems by controlling matter at the nanometer scale (1-100 billionths of a meter). Potential exposures to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) through contact with consumer products or air, water, and food sources are an emerging potential threat to human health. ENPs have unique properties and characteristics in addition to size, such as a...

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Minimizing Children’s Non-residential Exposure to Traffic-related Pollution (UBC Bridge Program)

A significant portion of children’s exposure to traffic-related pollution occurs in and around schools and daycares and in transit to these locations. New schools and daycare facilities should be located at least 150 m from major roads (15,000 or more vehicles/day) and should incorporate appropriate ventilation systems to reduce infiltration of outdoor pollutants. Interventions for existing...

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Residential Air Cleaner Use to Improve Indoor Air Quality and Health: A Review of the Evidence

Air cleaners are designed to remove pollutants from indoor air, but their effectiveness depends on the air cleaner design and set-up, as well as on the presence of specific pollutants, their concentrations, and air exchange rates in the room/home. Ozone generators and some electrostatic precipitators produce ozone at levels that pose health concerns. Little evidence is available on removal of...

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Adverse Cardiovascular Health Effects of Exposure to Short-Term Air Pollution

Based on appraisals of recent systematic reviews and patient information, this report provides an overview of: 1) evidence available to generate health protection measures; 2) health protection advice currently recommended to persons with/at risk of cardio-vascular diseases through public health, medical, patient information, environmental, and meteorological websites; and 3) a general framework...

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Active Transportation in Urban Areas: Exploring Health Benefits and Risks (UBC Bridge Program)

Active transportation refers mainly to walking and cycling for transportation. Health Benefits:  People who use active transportation are, on average, more physically fit, less obese, and have a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease compared to people who use only motorized transportation. A shift from motorized transportation to active transportation has the potential for societal benefits...

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Cardiovascular Effects of Sub-daily Levels of Ambient Fine Particles

Topics: Air, Outdoor Air 

While the effects of daily fine particulate exposure (PM) have been well reviewed, the epidemiological and physiological evidence of cardiovascular effects associated to sub-daily exposures has not. We performed a theoretical model-driven systematic non-meta-analytical literature review to document the association between PM sub-daily exposures (≤6 hours) and arrhythmia, ischemia and myocardial...

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Workshops Presentations

Infiltration of air pollutants and effectiveness of cleaners

L'Institut national de santé publique (INSPQ) 8e Atelier de santé environnementale

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Forest Fires: Impacts on Air Quality and Health

Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors (New Brunswick Branch) 2010 Annual Conference

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Public health interventions related to risks associated with exposure to local air pollution sources: control measures and health protection and public education approaches

On Shaky Ground - Evidence of Public Health Impacts from Hydraulic Fracturing

The BCCDC/NCCEH Environmental Health Seminar Series provides an opportunity for learning and knowledge exchange on a variety of environmental health topics. The seminars can be attended in-person or online. Speaker: Anne-Marie Nicol, MES, PhD, Environmental Health Scientist, NCCEH Abstract: This seminar describes the processes involved in shale gas production, including hydraulic fracturing, and...

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An Introduction to Tools Used in Air Quality Assessment

Topics: Air, Outdoor Air BC, Canada 

In March 2011, the British Columbia Lung Association held its 8th Annual Air Quality & Health Workshop in Vancouver. As a pre-meeting event, the NCCEH, in combination with the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) and the BC Lung Association, organized an air quality training workshop. Workshop Objective The objective of this training workshop was to increase the understanding and...

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BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) - The Epidemiology of Airborne Pollutants and Autism

Dr. Amy Kalkbrenner uses epidemiologic methods to study how exposures to environmental pollutants during pregnancy cause poor birth outcomes (such as preterm birth) or neurodevelopmental disorders (like autism). She especially focuses on airborne exposures, such as traffic-related pollutants like fine particulate matter, the hundreds of airborne metals and volatile organic compounds known as air...

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BC Lung Association - Effect Modification of Prenatal Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Childhood Asthma Incidence

Prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with development of childhood asthma, however, less is known regarding the potential modifying factors in this association. This presentation will go through the literature on this issue and will present findings from a retrospective cohort study conducted in Ontario, Canada. This study examined effect modification by maternal asthma...

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Alberta Land Stewardship Act, SA 2009, c A-26.8

Climate Change and Emissions Management Act, SA 2003, c C-16.7

Specified Gas Emitters Regulation, Alta Reg 139/2007

Specified Gas Reporting Regulation, Alta Reg 251/2004

Dangerous Goods Transportation and Handling Act, RSA 2000, c D-4

Dangerous Goods Transportation and Handling Regulation, Alta Reg 157/1997

Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, RSA 2000, c E-12

Approvals and Registrations Procedure Regulation, Alta Reg 113/1993

Emissions Trading Regulation, Alta Reg 33/2006

Environmental Assessment Regulation, Alta Reg 112/1993

Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants Regulation, Alta Reg 34/2006

Ozone-depleting Substances and Halocarbons Regulation, Alta Reg 181/2000

Pesticide (Ministerial) Regulation, Alta Reg 43/1997

Release Reporting Regulation, Alta Reg 117/1993

Substance Release Regulation, Alta Reg 124/1993

Hydro and Electric Energy Act, RSA 2000, c H-16

Hydro and Electric Energy Regulation, Alta Reg 409/1983

Oil and Gas Conservation Act, RSA 2000, c O-6

Oil and Gas Conservation Rules, Alta Reg 151/1971

Provincial Parks Act, RSA 2000, c P-35

Provincial Parks (Dispositions) Regulation, Alta Reg 241/1977

Drilling and Production Regulation, BC Reg 282/2010

Oil and Gas Activities Act, SBC 2008, c 36

Emergency Program Act, RSBC 1996, c 111

Emergency Program Management Regulation, BC Reg 477/94

Environmental Assessment Act, SBC 2002, c 43

Reviewable Projects Regulation, BC Reg 370/2002

Environmental Management Act, SBC 2003, c 53

Agricultural Waste Control Regulation, BC Reg 131/92

Antisapstain Chemical Waste Control Regulation, BC Reg 300/90

Asphalt Plant Regulation, BC Reg 217/97

Code of Practice for the Concrete and Concrete Products Industry, BC Reg 329/2007

Code of Practice for the Slaughter and Poultry Processing Industries, BC Reg 246/2007

Contaminated Sites Regulation, BC Reg 375/96

Gasoline Vapour Control Regulation, BC Reg 226/95

Hazardous Waste Regulation, BC Reg 63/88

Landfill Gas Management Regulation, BC Reg 391/2008

Mushroom Compost Facilities Regulation, BC Reg 413/98

Oil and Gas Waste Regulation, BC Reg 254/2005

Open Burning Smoke Control Regulation, BC Reg 145/93

Organic Matter Recycling Regulation, BC Reg 18/2002

Public Notification Regulation, BC Reg 202/94

Sulphur Content of Fuel Regulation, BC Reg 67/89

Waste Discharge Regulation, BC Reg 320/2004

Wood Residue Burner and Incinerator Regulation, BC Reg 519/95

Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets Act, SBC 2007, c 42

Emission Offsets Regulation, BC Reg 393/2008

Motor Vehicle Act Regulations, BC Reg 26/58

Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, RSBC 1996, c 361

South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Act, SBC 1998, c 30

Transport of Dangerous Goods Act, RSBC 1996, c 458

University Endowment Land Act, RSBC 1996, c 469

Food and Food Handling Establishments Regulation, Man Reg 339/88 R

The Climate Change and Emissions Reductions Act, CCSM c C135

Dangerous Goods Handling and Transportation Act, CCSM c D12

Classification Criteria for Products, Substances and Organisms Regulation, Man Reg 282/87

Mines and Minerals Act, CCSM c M162

Quarry Minerals Regulation, 1992, Man Reg 65/92

The Mining and Metallurgy Compensation Act, CCSM c M190

The Oil and Gas Act, CCSM c O34

Drilling and Production Regulation, Man Reg 111/94

The Ozone Depleting Substances Act, CCSM c O80

Classes of Development Regulation, Man Reg 164/88

Incinerators Regulation, Man Reg 91/88 R

Licensing Procedures Regulation, Man Reg 163/88

Onsite Wastewater Management Systems Regulation, Man Reg 83/2003

Peat Smoke Control Regulation, Man Reg 226/89

Clean Air Act, SNB 1997, c C-5.2

Air Quality Regulation, NB Reg 97-133

Ozone Depleting Substances and Other Halocarbons Regulation, NB Reg 97-132

Public Participation Regulation, NB Reg 2001-98

Clean Environment Act, RSNB 1973, c C-6

Clean Water Act, SNB 1989, c C-6.1

Gas Distribution Act, 1999, SNB 1999, c G-2.11

Gas Distribution and Marketers' Filing Regulation, NB Reg 99-60

Mining Act, SNB 1985, c M-14.1

General Regulation, NB Reg 86-98

Tourism Development Act, 2008, SNB 2008, c T-9.5

Tourist Establishment Regulation, NB Reg 2008-141

Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, RSNB 2011, c 232

Dangerous Goods Transportation Act, RSNL 1990, c D-1

Environmental Protection Act, SNL 2002, c E-14.2

Air Pollution Control Regulations, 2004, NLR 39/04

Halocarbon Regulations, NLR 41/05

Fire Protection Services Act, SNL 2008, c F-11.01

Highway Traffic Act, RSNL 1990, c H-3

Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement Act, SNL 2004, c L-3.1

Mineral Exploration Standards Regulations, NLR 39/07

Anti-idling Act, SNS 2010, c 32

Air Quality Regulations, NS Reg 28/2005

Ozone Layer Protection Regulations, NS Reg 54/95

Environmental Protection Act, RSNWT 1988, c E-7

Asphalt Paving Industry Emission Regulations, RRNWT 1990, c E-23

Used Oil and Waste Fuel Management Regulations, NWT Reg 064-2003

Work Site Hazardous Materials Information System Regulations, RRNWT 1990, c S-2

Environmental Protection Act, RSO 1990, c E.19

Air Pollution - Local Air Quality, O Reg 419/05

Air Quality Regulations, PEI Reg EC377/92

Environmental Records Review Regulations, PEI Reg EC619/04

Ozone Layer Protection Regulations, PEI Reg EC619/94

Waste Resource Management Regulations, PEI Reg EC691/00

Regulation respecting the quality of the atmosphere, CQLR c Q-2, r 38

Clean Air Regulation, CQLR c Q-2, r 4.1

The Clean Air Act, SS 1986-87-88, c C-12.1

The Clean Air Regulations, RRS c C-12.1 Reg 1

Halocarbon Control Regulations, RRS c E-10.21 Reg 2

Environment Act, RSY 2002, c 76

Air Emissions Regulations, YOIC 1998/207

Ozone Depleting Substances and Other Halocarbons Regulation, YOIC 2000/127

Solid Waste Regulations, YOIC 2000/11

Oil and Gas Act, RSY 2002, c 162

Pesticide Act, RSNWT (Nu) 1988, c P-4

Pesticide Regulations, RRNWT (Nu) 1990 c P-2

The Environmental Management and Protection Act, 2002, SS 2002, c E-10.21

Public Health Act, RSA 2000, c P-37

The Public Health Act, CCSM c P210

The Environment Act, CCSM c E125

Public Health Act, SNWT 2007, c 17

Public Health Act, RSPEI 1988, c P-30.1

Public Health Act, 1994, SS 1994, c P-37.1

Public Health and Safety Act, RSY 2002, c 176